Hong Kong
British Empire
(1841) British flag raised.

(1842) Hong Kong Island ceded by China under Treaty of Nanking. 

(1843) Governor, Sir Henry Pottinger. 

(1844) Governor, Sir John Davis. 

(1848) Governor, Sir George Bonham; Voyage of Keying

(1841) Hong Kong occupied by British.

(1842) Hong Kong ceded to Britain under Treaty of Nanking; Treaty ports opened to foreign trade.


(1841) British flag raised over Hong Kong Island. 

(1842) Hong Kong island acquired under Treaty of Nanking; First Afghan War ends. 

(1843) Sind annexed; Natal annexed.

(1845-48) Sikh wars

 (1850) Population 33,000. 

(1854) Governor, Sir John Bowring. 

(1857) Poisoned-Bread Case. 

(1859)  Goevernor, Sir Hercules Robinson 

(1850-64) Taiping rebellion against Manchus. 

(1856-60) Second Anglo-Chinese war.


(1851)  Great Exhibition, London. 

(1856-60) Second Anglo-Chinese War. 

(1856) Oudh annexed. 

(1857) Indian Mutiny. 

(1858) East India Company ended.

(1860) Population 94,000;  Kowloon and Stonecutters Island acquired from china under first Convention of Peking. 

(1865) Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank founded. 

(1866) Governor, Sir Richard macDonnell. 

(1869) Visit of Prince Alfred.

(1860) Beijing occupied by British and French; Kowloon and Stonecutters Island ceded to Britain under first Convention of Peking;
Frontier territory ceded to Russia. 

(1861-72) Creation of arms industry.


(1860) Kowloon and Stonecutters island acquired under first convention of Peking. 

(1867) Dominion of Canada founded; Malayan Straits Settlements annexed. 


(1870) Population 124,000. 

(1872) Governor, Sir Arthur Kennedy. 

(1877) Governor, Sir John Pope-Hennessy. 

(1872-94) Growth of industry. 

(1876) Korea declared independent. 

(1877) Ryukyu Islands ceded to Japan.

(1874) Ashanti War;
Fiji annexed. 

(1876) Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India. 

(1878-81) Second Afghan War. 

(1878) Cyprus occupied.

(1880) Population 160,000. 

(1881) Visit of King Kalakaua of Hawaii. 

(1883) Governor, Sir 
George Bowen. 

(1887) Governor, Sir William Des Voeux. 

(1888) Peak tramline opened.

(1881) Ci-xi becomes sole regent of China. 

(1887) Macao formally ceded to Portuguese.

(1884) New Guinea annexed. 

(1885) Gordon dies at Khartoum. 

(1886) Upper Burma annexed. 

(1887) Zululand annexed; Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee.

(1890) Population 198,000. 

(1891) Governor, Sir William Robinson. 

(1894) Bubonic plague. 

(1898) Governor, Sir Henry Blake; New Territories leased from China under second Convention of Peking.


(1894-95) War against Japan. 

(1895) Taiwan and the Pescadores ceded to Japan. 

(1897-98) Jiaozhou Bay acquired by Germany, Lushun (Port Arthur) by Russia, Qinzhou Bay by France, Weihaiwei by Britain. 

(1898) New Territories leased to Britain under second Convention of Peking.


(1890) Zanzibar declared a protectorate. 

(1893-96) Ashanti Wars.

(1895) east African protectorate established; Jameson raid. 

(1896-98) Reconquest of the Sudan. 

(1897) Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. 

*(1898) Hong Kong New Territories leased from China under second Convention of Peking. 

(1899-1902) Second Boer War.


(1900) Population 263,000. 

(1904) Governor, Sir Matthew Nathan. 

(1907) Governor, Sir Frederick Lugard.

(1900-1901) Boxer rising: Western powers intervene. 

(1904) Japanese besiege Port Arthur. 

(1905) Russians surrender Port Arthur to Japanese. 

(1908) Ci-xi dies. 

(1900-1903) Northern Nigeria annexed. 

(1901) Ashanti annexed;Queen Victoria dies, is succeeded byEdward VII; Commonwalth of Austrailia founded. 

(1907) New Zealand becomes self-governing Dominion. 

(1910) Population 436,000. 

(1912) Governor, Sir Henry May; University of Hong Kong opened; Kowloon-Guangzhou railway completed. 

(1919) Governor, Sir Reginald Stubbs.


(1911) Revolution abolishes Manchu dynasty. 

(1912) Kuomintang Party founded. 

(1915) Japanese seize Jiaozhou Bay. 

(1917) War with Germany. 

(1919) New Culture Movement.

(1910) Edward VII dies, is succeeded by George V; Union of South Africa established. 

(1914-18) First World War. 

(1919) Amritsar massacre.


(1920) Population 600,000. 

(1922) Seamen's strike. 

(1925) General strike; Governor, Sir Cecil Clementi.


(1920) Chinese Communist Party formed. 

(1925) Sun Yat-sen dies. 

(1926) Civil war begins against Communists. 

(1928) Chiang Kai-shek becomes president.

(1920) British East Africa becomes colony of Kenya; Palestine, Iraq, Tanganyika become mandated territories. 

(1921) Gandhi's noncooperation movement begins. 

(1922) Washington Naval Treaty. 

(1926) General Strike in Britain. 

(1928) Indian strikes.

(1930) Population 840,000; Governor, Sir William Peel. 

(1935) Governor, Sir Andrew Caldecott. 

(1937) Governor, Sir Geffry Northcote.


(1930) British withdraw from Weihaiwei. 

(1932) Japanese occupy Manchuria. 

(1934) Communist Long March. 

(1937) Japanese take Beijing, move southward. 

(1938) Japanese take Guangzhou, set up puppet government at Nanking. 

(1939) Japanese occupy Hainan Island.

(1932-34) Civil disobedience movement in India. 

(1936) Kipling dies; George V dies, is succeeded by Edward VIII; Edward VIII abdicates, is succeeded by George VI. 

(1939) Second World War begins. 

(1940) Population 840,000.

(1941) Governor, Sir Mark Young;  Japanese seize Hong Kong.

(1945) Hong Kong liberated from Japanese; Population 610,000.

(1947) Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham.

(1949) Chinese border sealed by Communists.



(1943) Treaty port concessions renounced by Western powers.

(1945) Civil war resumed between Communists and Kuomintang.

(1949) Communist republic established under Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai.  Chiang Kai-shek withdraws to Taiwan.

(1940) Dunkirk evacuation; Battle of Britain.

(1941) Japanese seize Hong Kong.

(1942) Battle of Alamein.

(1944) Normandy invasion.

(1945) Hong Kong liberated; End of Second World War.

(1947) India independent.

(1948) Ceylon independent; Britain withdraws from Palestine.

(1950) Population 2 million.

(1951) UN embargo on trade with China.

(1952) Riots in Kowloon.

(1953) Public housing program begun.

(1956) Wave of immigrants.

(1958) Governor, Sir Robert Black.

(1959) Kai Tak extension opened.

(1950) Communist regime recognized by Britain; Treaty of friendship with USSR;
Tibet occupied.

(1950-53) China fighting in Korean War.

(1958) Great Leap Forward. 

(1950) Britain enters Korean War.

(1952) George VI dies, is succeeded by Elizabeth II.

(1956) Suez intervention; Sudan independent.

(1957) Ghana independent.


(1960) Population 3 million.

(1962) Influx of Chinese immigrants.

(1964) Governor, Sir David Trench.

(1965-75) Hong Kong a rest and recreation center for U.S. troops.

(1966) Lion Rock tunnel opened.

(1967) Pro-Communist riots.


(1966) Cultural Revolution.

(1967) British embassy sacked.

(1960-68) Cyprus, Uganda, Tanganyika, Kenya, Zanzibar, Nyasaland, Malta, Gambia, Bristish Guiana, Mauritius, Nigeria independent.


(1970) Population 4 million.

(1971) Governor, Sir Murray MacLehose.

(1972) Cross-harbor tunnels opens.

(1973) First New Town completed.

(1974) Anticorruption commission established; Godber sentenced.

(1978) Deng Xiaoping (10) announces an unprecedented policy of reform.

(1979) Mass transit railway opens; The US and China establish diplomatic relations and recognise the mainland as the sole legitimate China. Four special economic zones established on China South coast.

(1971) China admitted to UN.

(1973) US recognizes China.

(1975) Gang of Four come to power; Chiang Kai-shek dies.

(1976) Zhou En-lai dies; Mao Zedong dies.

(1978) Deng Xiaoping comes to power; First foreign tourists admitted since 1966.

(1973) Britain joins European Common Market.
(1980) One-child policy instituted;
Population 5.2 million.

(1981) Official ruling on Mao's regime asseses that he was "70 per cent correct, 30 per cent incorrect".

(1982) Governor, Sir Edward Youde.

(1984) Anglo-Chinese agreement on Hong Kong; Sino-British agreement on the return of Hong Kong. Emergence of first "Rmb10,000 households".

(1985) The first bankruptcy of a state enterprise; First elected members to Legislative Council.

(1987) Governor, Sir David Wilson.

(1989) Students protest in Beijing demanding more democracy culminating in a bloody army crackdown. In the aftermath, Jiang Zemin moves to Beijing and is named as Deng's successor.

(1980) Gang of Four imprisoned.

(1982) Shenzhen Special Economic Zone opened; Talks on Hong Kong open with Britain.

(1984) Agreement with Britain on future of Hong Kong.


(1982) Falklands War; Negotiations open with China about Hong Kong.

(1984) Anglo-Chinese agreement on Hong Kong.


(1990) McDonald's opens its first outlet in China. The Shanghai stock exchange re-opens; Basic Law.

(1991) The United Democrats of Hong Kong win a landslide victory in the partical elections of Legislative Council members in Hong Kong.  Pro-Beijing forces suffer a devastating defeat.

(1992) Deng Xiaoping, on a "Southern Tour", says China should be "a little more daring" in pursuing reform. GDP jumps 11 per cent;
Governor Christopher Patten (last British Governor).

(1997) Hong Kong returns to Chinese sovereignty; Deng Xiaoping dies.  At the 15th Communist Party Congress, President Jiang Zemin call for a faster pace of reform. The 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army Britain returns Hong Kong to China.

(1998) Zhu Rongji, the premier, takes office.

(1999) Falun Gong followers hold the biggest demonstration since Tiananmen Square. Nato bombs the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. The 50th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic.

(1997) China regains Hong Kong.


(1997) Britain withdraws from Hong Kong.


Hong Kong, Jan Morris, Random House, 1988
The Chinese and their Future, Beijing, Taipei, and Hong Kong, Z. Lin, T. Robinson, AEI Press, 1994